This site contains copyrighted material, the use of which has not always been specifically authorised by the copyright owner. Where ever possible I would include the name of the author/owner and give them full recognition for the excellent and invaluable work they do.
Under the provisions for fair dealings in the Copyright Act of Singapore, a certain amount of copying in specific instances is permissible. Fair dealing is when a fair and reasonable portion of the work is copied for:
- research or private study;
- criticism or review;
- reporting current events; or
- judicial proceedings or professional advice.
The following factors will be taken into account in deciding whether the use is a fair dealing:
- purpose and character of the dealing, including whether such dealing is of a commercial nature or is for non-profit educational purposes;
- nature of the work e.g. for certain works, like photographs, a taking of any part can constitute a taking of the whole;
- amount and substantiality of the copying taken in relation to the whole work; and
- effect of the dealing upon the potential market for, or value of, the work.
A fair dealing may be presumed when the portion copied is:- For work divided into chapters
- not more than one single chapters OR
- not more than 10% of the total number of pages of the work.
- not more than 10% of the total number of pages.
- not more than 10% of the total number of bytes in the edition
- the whole of the work
Reference: Exceptions to Copyright Infringement, http://www.ipos.gov.sg/main/aboutip/copyright/ownershipnrights.html, Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS)